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对机械化施工企业来说,工程机械技术状况的良好与否是企业能否正常生产的直接因素。就液压传动的工程机械而言,液压系统的正常运行是其良好技术状况的一个主要标志。合格的液压油是液压系统可靠运行的保障,正确的维护是液压系统可靠运行的根本。为此,本人根据工作实践,就一般作业环境中工程机械液压系统的维护作一粗

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对机械化施工企业来说,工程机械技术状况的良好与否是企业能否正常生产的直接因素。就液压传动的工程机械而言,液压系统的正常运行是其良好技术状况的一个主要标志。合格的液压油是液压系统可靠运行的保障,正确的维护是液压系统可靠运行的根本。为此,本人根据工作实践,就一般作业环境中工程机械液压系统的维护作一粗略的探讨。
For mechanized construction enterprises, whether the technical condition of construction machinery is good or not is a direct factor for the normal production of enterprises. As far as hydraulic transmission engineering machinery is concerned, the normal operation of hydraulic system is a main symbol of its good technical condition. Qualified hydraulic oil is the guarantee of reliable operation of hydraulic system, and correct maintenance is the basis of reliable operation of hydraulic system. Therefore, according to the working practice, I make a rough discussion on the maintenance of hydraulic system of construction machinery in general working environment.
1)选择适合的液压油
1) Choosing suitable hydraulic oil
液压油在液压系统中起着传递压力、润滑、冷却、密封的作用,液压油选择不恰当是液压系统早期故障和耐久性下降的主要原因。应按随机《使用说明书》中规定的牌号选择液压油,特殊情况需要使用代用油时,应力求其性能与原牌号性能相同。不同牌号的液压油不能混合使用,以防液压油产生化学反应、性能发生变化。 深褐色、乳白色、有异味的液压油是变质油,不能使用。
Hydraulic oil plays the role of transmitting pressure, lubrication, cooling and sealing in hydraulic system. The main reason for early failure and durability decline of hydraulic system is improper selection of hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils shall be selected according to the grades specified in the Random Instructions for Use. When substituted oils are needed in special cases, the performance of the hydraulic oils shall be the same as that of the original grades. Hydraulic oils of different grades can not be mixed to prevent chemical reaction and performance change of hydraulic oils. Dark brown, Milky white, odorous hydraulic oil is deteriorated oil, can not be used.
2)防止固体杂质混入液压系统
2) Preventing solid impurities from mixing into hydraulic system
清洁的液压油是液压系统的生命。 液压系统中有许多精密偶件,有的有阻尼小孔、有的有缝隙等。若固体杂质入侵将造成精密偶件拉伤、发卡、油道堵塞等,危及液压系统的安全运行。一般固体杂质入侵液压系统的途径有:液压油不洁;加油工具不洁;加油和维修、保养不慎;液压元件脱屑等。可以从以下几个方面防止固体杂质入侵系统:
Clean hydraulic oil is the life of hydraulic system. There are many precise couples in the hydraulic system, some with damping holes, some with cracks and so on. If solid impurities invade, it will cause precise couple parts to pull, hairpin, oil duct blockage and so on, endangering the safe operation of hydraulic system. Generally, the ways of solid impurities intruding into hydraulic system are: unclean hydraulic oil; unclean refueling tools; inadvertent refueling and maintenance; debris removal of hydraulic components, etc. The following aspects can be used to prevent solid impurities from intruding into the system:
3)加油保养
3) Refueling Maintenance
A、加油时
A. Refueling
液压油必须过滤加注,加油工具应可靠清洁。不能为了提高加油速度而去掉油箱加油口处的过滤器。加油人员应使用干净的手套和工作服,以防固体杂质和纤维杂质掉入油中。
Hydraulic oil must be filtered and filled, and filling tools should be reliable and clean. It is not possible to remove the filter at the filling port of the tank in order to improve the filling speed. Refuelers should use clean gloves and work clothes to prevent solid and fibre impurities from falling into the oil.
B、保养时
B. Maintenance
拆卸液压油箱加油盖、滤清器盖、检测孔、液压油管等部位,造成系统油道暴露时要避开扬尘,拆卸部位要先彻底清洁后才能打开。如拆卸液压油箱加油盖时,先除去油箱盖四周的泥土,拧松油箱盖后,清除残留在接合部位的杂物(不能用水冲洗以免水渗入油箱),确认清洁后才能打开油箱盖。如需使用擦拭材料和铁锤时,应选择不掉纤维杂质的擦拭材料和击打面附着橡胶的专用铁锤。液压元件、液压胶管要认真清洗,用高压风吹干后组装。选用包装完好的正品滤芯(内包装损坏,虽然滤芯完好,也可能不洁)。换油时同时清洗滤清器,安装滤芯前应用擦拭材料认真清洁滤清器壳内底部污物。
Removal of hydraulic tank filling cap, filter cap, detection hole, hydraulic tubing and other parts, resulting in system oil duct exposure to avoid dust, the removal part must be thoroughly cleaned before opening. If the hydraulic tank filling cap is disassembled, first remove the soil around the oil tank cap, screw loose the oil tank cap, and remove the debris remaining in the joint (water can not be washed to avoid water infiltration into the tank), and then open the oil tank cap after confirmation of cleanliness. When wiping materials and hammers are needed, special wiping materials and hammers that do not remove impurities from fibers should be selected. Hydraulic components and hoses should be carefully cleaned and assembled after being dried by high-pressure air. Choose the well-packed filter element (the inner packaging is damaged, although the filter element is intact, it may also be unclean). Clean the filter at the same time when changing oil. Before installing the filter element, clean the bottom dirt of the filter shell carefully with wiping material.
C、液压系统的清洗
C. Cleaning of Hydraulic System
清洗油必须使用与系统所用牌号相同的液压油,油温在45~80℃之间,用大流量尽可能将系统中杂质带走。液压系统要反复清洗三次以上,每次清洗完后,趁油热时将其全部放出系统。清洗完毕再清洗滤清器、更换新滤芯后加注新油。
Cleaning oil must use hydraulic oil of the same brand as that used in the system. The oil temperature is between 45 ~80 C. The impurities in the system should be removed as far as possible with large flow rate. The hydraulic system should be cleaned more than three times. After each cleaning, all the hydraulic system should be released when the oil is hot. After cleaning, clean the filter, replace the new filter element and add new oil.

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